Teams that regularly self-assess are more likely to ensure that School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (SWPBIS) practices and systems have equal impact for all students. Therefore, it is recommended that teams complete the Culturally Responsive SWPBIS Team Self-Assessment tool (CR-SWPBIS) annually. Culturally responsive SWPBIS recognizes the importance of culture by incorporating cultural elements (e.g., perspectives, language and norms) from diverse stakeholders including parents, children, and community members are incorporated into the review of data, and implementation of systems, and practices.

Culturally Responsive School-Wide PBIS Self Assessment Tool v3.0 (CR-SWPBIS)

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 Suggested Resources
 links current as of December 2015

Banaji, M.R., & Greenwald, A.G. (2013). Blind spot. Hidden biases of good people. New York: Delacorte Press.

  • Currently available in print/tablet format
  • Summary: Presentation of racial bias research generated from the Implicit Association Test (IAT).
  • Topics: Implicit bias, stereotyping, racial disparities, Professional development

Bollmer, J., Bethel, J., Garrison-Mogren, R., & Brauen, M. (2007).Using the risk ratio to assess racial/ethnic disproportionality in special education at the school-district level. The Journal of Special Education, 41(3), 186-198.

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  • Summary: Directions for calculating risk ratio as a measure of disproportionality.
  • Topics: Student data, special education, racial disparities

Boykin, A.W., & Noguera, P. (2011). Creating the opportunity to learn. Moving from research to practice to close the achievement gap. Alexandra, VA.: ASCD.

  • Currently available in print/tablet format
  • Summary: Provides a four-part, evidence-based framework for intervening in the achievement gap.
  • Topics: Achievement gap, Culturally responsive instruction, Student engagement

Bradshaw, C.P., Mitchell, M.M., O’Brennan, L.M., & Leaf, P.J. (2010). Multilevel exploration of factors contributing to the overrepresentation of black students in office disciplinary referrals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 508-520.

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  • Summary: Investigated various factors (e.g., teacher’s race, classroom characteristics) as possible contributors in disproportionality in student discipline.
  • Topics: PBIS, Student data, Student discipline, Disproportionality

Carter, P, Skiba, R., Arredondo, M., & Pollock, M. (2014, December). You Can’t Fix What You Don’t Look At: Acknowledging Race in Addressing Racial Discipline Disparities. Discipline Disparities Series: Overview. Bloomington, IN: The Equity Project at Indiana University. 

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  • Summary: Describes how to have direct, honest conversations about race that can lead toward effective interventions.
  • Topics: Race, Equity, Microagressions, Stereotypes, Professional development

Eber, L., Upreti, G., & Rose, J. (2010, May). Building Leadership - A Practitioners Bulletin - Addressing Ethnic Disproportionality in School Discipline through Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS), Illinois Principals Association.

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  • Summary: Presentation of case studies from Illinois schools addressing disproportionality in student discipline.
  • Topics: PBIS implementation, student discipline, interventions

Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education. 53(2), 106-116.

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  • Summary: Describes the five components of culturally responsive instruction.
  • Topics: Culturally responsive instruction

Gregory, A., Skiba, R., & Noguera, P. (2010). The achievement gap and the discipline gap: Two sides of the same coin? Educational Researcher, 39, 59-68.

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  • Summary: Examines how discipline policies that disproportionately affect students of color may influence the achievement gap.
  • Topics: Achievement gap, Student discipline, Student engagement

Gregory, A. & Weinstein, R.S. (2008). The discipline gap and African Americans: Defiance or cooperation in the high school classroom. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 455-475.

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  • Summary: Investigation of student-teacher relationship quality as a factor in discipline referrals.
  • Topics: Student discipline, student engagement

Losen, D.J. & Gillespie, J. (2012, August). Opportunities suspended: The disparate impact of disciplinary exclusion from school. The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at The Civil Rights Project at UCLA

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  • Summary: Analysis of discipline data obtained from approximately 7,000 U.S. school districts. Findings show that African American and students with disabilities are disciplined at significantly higher rates than their peers.
  • Topics: Disproportionality, Student discipline, Data

McIntosh, K. (2015, March). Making positive behavior support more durable and effective for all. Paper presented at the Twelfth International APBS Conference, Boston, MA.

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  • Summary: Describes implicit bias. Explains vulnerable decision points strategy.
  • Topics: PBIS, implicit bias, stereotyping, student discipline

McIntosh, K., Girvan, E.J., Horner, R.H., Smolkowski, K., & Sugai, G. (2014, August). Recommendations for addressing discipline disproportionality in education. Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports OSEP Technical Assistance Center.

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  • Summary: Provides five point plan for addressing disproportionality within PBIS framework.
  • Topics: PBIS, Academic instruction, Data, School policy, Vulnerable decision points

McIntosh, K., Horner, R., & Sugai, G. (2016). Achieving Equity in School Discipline: A Promising and Practical Multi-Component Approach. OSEP Center on Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports.

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  • Summary: PBIS and Equity in School Discipline: The current research on addressing equity in schools indicates a 5-point multicomponent approach within a PBIS framework. This brief, developed by the National PBIS TA Center, describes those strategies within a PBIS frame. 
  • Topics: PBIS, Equity

Okonofua, J. A., & Eberhardt, J. L. (2015). Two Strikes Race and the Disciplining of Young Students. Psychological science, 26(5), 617-624.

  • Currently available for purchase
  • Sumary: Examined the role of implicit bias and stereotyping in student discipline. The authors found that teachers were more likely to perceive a tendency of negative behavior to Black students versus White students after a second infraction.
  • Topics: Implicit bias, stereotyping, school discipline

Saifer, S., Edwards. K., Ellis, D., Ko, L., & Stuczynski, A. (2011). Culturally responsive standards-based teaching. Classroom to community and back. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

  • Currently available in print/tablet format
  • Summary: Provides detailed description of culturally responsive teaching and directions for implementation. Includes case-studies from various U.S. schools.
  • Topics: Culturally responsive instruction

Singleton, G.E. & Linton, C. (2006). Courageous conversations about race. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

  • Currently available for purchase
  • Summary: Explanation of the Courageous Conversations framework for discussing race and equity.
  • Topics: Professional development resource on race and equity

Skiba, R.J., Horner, R.H., Chung, C-G, Karega Rausch, M., May, S.L.,& Tobin, T. (2011). Race is not neutral: A national investigation of African American and Latino disproportionality in school discipline. School Psychology Review, 40(1), 85-107.

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  • Summary: Investigation of racial disciplinary patterns in schools implementing PBIS.
  • Topics: PBIS, student discipline, disproportionality

 Skiba, R.J., Michael,R.S., Nardo, A.C., & Peterson, R.L. (2002). The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment. The Urban Review, 34(4), 317-342.

  • Currently available for purchase
  • Summary: Examination of three common rationales (i.e., gender, race, socioeconomic status) for disproportionality in student discipline.
  • Topics: Disproportionality, Data, school discipline

Sue, D.W. (2015) Race talk and the conspiracy of silence. Understanding and facilitating difficult dialogues on race. Hoboken N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.

  • Currently available for purchase
  • Summary: An examination of the roadblocks to honest discussions about race and possible tools for facilitating difficult conversations.
  • Topics: Professional development resource on race and equity

Sugai, G., O'Keeffe, B.V., & Fallon, L.M. (2012). A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 197-208.

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  • Summary: A discussion of culture framed within a behavioral context.
  • Topics: PBIS, Culture, Contextual fit

U.S. Department of Education, Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline, Washington, D.C., 2014.

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  • Summary: Provides an in-depth description of the three principles recommended to build a positive and productive learning environment.
  • Topics: Student discipline, Equity, School climate, School policy, Social emotional learning

Vincent, C.G., Randall, C., Cartledge, G., Tobin, T.J., & Swain-Bradway, J. (2011). Toward a conceptual integration of cultural responsiveness and schoolwide positive behavior support.  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 13(4), 219-229.

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  • Summary: Provides culturally responsive PBIS (CR-PBIS) framework based upon expansion of current PBIS model (data, systems, practices).
  • Topics: PBIS, Cultural competence, Culturally responsive practices